Awareness https://eepro.naaee.org/ en Engaging students, teachers, and parents in recycling education can build community habits https://eepro.naaee.org/research/eeresearch/engaging-students-teachers-and-parents-recycling-education-can-build-community Engaging students, teachers, and parents in recycling education can build community habits <div class="field-research-citation"><article class="bibcite-reference"> <div class="bibcite-citation"> <div class="csl-bib-body"><div><div class="csl-entry"><span class="citeproc-author">Taghdisi, M. H., Estebsari, F., Gholami, M., Hosseini, A. F., Milani, A. S., Abolkheirian, S., &amp; Kandi, Z. R. K</span>. (2022). <span class="citeproc-title-and-descriptions"><span class="citeproc-title"><span>A training program of source-separated recycling for primary school students: Applying the health promoting schools model</span></span></span>. <span class="citeproc-container"><span class="citeproc-container-title"><span>Applied Environmental Education &amp; Communication</span></span>, <span class="citeproc-locators"><span class="citeproc-volume"><span>21</span></span><span class="citeproc-issue">(1)</span>, <span class="citeproc-page">102-117, </span></span></span>. <span class="citeproc-access">https://doi.org/10.1080/1533015X.2021.2001392</span></div></div></div> </div> </article> </div> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><a title="View user profile." href="/community/people/bill-finnegan" class="username">Bill Finnegan</a></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Tue, 01/23/2024 - 00:00</span> <div class="body"><p>Environmental education (EE) poses an opportunity to build recycling rates in communities by engaging students, teachers, and parents. In Iran, municipal recycling rates hover around 8% annually compared to other countries where municipal recycling rates can exceed 80% each year. The researchers drew upon the Albanian Health Promoting Schools Model (HPSM), which promotes health and well-being in the curriculum with different projects for students, teachers, and parents. The projects include class lectures and exhibitions for students, seminars and curricula workshops for teachers, and conferences and round-tables for parents. In this study, the researchers deployed educational interventions for Iranian students, parents, and teachers to determine this teaching model's impact on promoting recycling knowledge and recycling behaviors in the community.</p> <p>The study took place between October 2015 and May 2016 in Maragheh, East Azerbaijan Province, Iran. The participants included 413 students from the 4th, 5th, and 6th grades from 2 all-girls and 2 all-boys schools. There were also 49 teachers across the 4 schools and 68 parents included in the study. The test group had 207 students, 19 teachers, and 34 parents, while the control group had 206 students, 20 teachers, and 34 parents. Each participant type (e.g., parent, teacher, student) within the test group experienced a tailored intervention as part of the study. The students took part in 7, 45-minute lessons about recycling and 8 promotional experiences related to recycling and using recycled materials (e.g., poetry competitions, playing games, designing crafts, listening to songs). The teachers attended a 1-hour session about teaching methods on recycling and then engaged in a 65-minute discussion about how to implement these methods in the classroom. The parents were invited into the school and listened to 2, 60-minute training sessions about the importance of recycling and strategies to participate in recycling activities at home. The researchers distributed questionnaires to the test and control groups tailored to participant type (e.g., parent, teacher, student) that included questions on recycling awareness, attitude, performance, and participation. The latter, performance and participation, referred to the individual's attempts at recycling and actual recycling actions, respectively. Both groups' questionnaires were analyzed and compared against each other to detect the impact of the interventions.</p> <p>The analysis revealed the average scores for awareness and attitude of recycling, performance in supporting recycling behaviors and knowledge, and participation in recycling activities for students, parents, and teachers in the test group were much higher than the control group. Overall, the researchers concluded the various interventions used for each participant type positively impacted the participants' motivation to recycle and their understanding of best recycling practices. The test groups' questionnaire results for performance and participation showed parents and teachers that experienced the intervention positively impacted the students by encouraging them to recycle and reiterated to the students the importance of recycling on the environment. However, the researchers pointed out that parents and teachers tended to have more limited recycling knowledge.</p> <p>One limitation in this study was that it took place in Iran, making the results not generalizable to other countries. Replicating this study and its interventions in other areas of Iran would help provide more context for the impact of these educational tools.</p> <p>Based on the results, the researchers suggested that schools target recycling education and programming to parents and teachers to influence environmental literacy and pro-environmental behaviors in students. Overall, the researchers recommended following a similar structure to the HPSM in schools to support a holistic approach to increase recycling in the community.</p></div> <div class="field-label--inline--wrapper field-wrapper--field-research-summary"> <p class="field-label--field-research-summary field-label--inline">The Bottom Line</p> <div class="field-research-summary field--inline"><p>In Iran, recycling rates hover around 8% annually compared to other countries where recycling rates can exceed 80% each year. Based on the Albanian Health Promoting Schools Model (HPSM), the researchers deployed educational interventions and experiences for Iranian students, parents, and teachers to determine this teaching model&#039;s impact on promoting recycling knowledge and recycling behaviors in the community. Students, teachers, and parents were split into test and control groups and were given questionnaires that measured recycling awareness, attitude, performance, and participation. The results showed that the entire test group had significantly higher questionnaire scores than the control group, indicating that the interventions were impactful. The researchers recommended following a similar structure to the HPSM in schools to support a holistic approach to increase recycling in the community.</p> </div> </div> <div class="field-label--inline--wrapper field-wrapper--field-research-partner"> <p class="field-label--field-research-partner field-label--inline">Research Partner</p> <div class="field-research-partner field--inline"><a href="/taxonomy/term/119" hreflang="en">NAAEE</a></div> </div> <div class="field-label--inline--wrapper field-wrapper--field-research-category"> <p class="field-label--field-research-category field-label--inline">Research Category</p> <ul class="field-multiple--field-research-category"> <li class="field-research-category field--inline"><a href="/taxonomy/research-category/middle-childhood-6-12-yrs" hreflang="en">Middle childhood (6-12 yrs)</a></li> <li class="field-research-category field--inline"><a href="/taxonomy/research-category/formal-learning-setting" hreflang="en">Formal learning setting</a></li> <li class="field-research-category field--inline"><a href="/taxonomy/research-category/awareness" hreflang="en">Awareness</a></li> <li class="field-research-category field--inline"><a href="/taxonomy/research-category/attitude" hreflang="en">Attitude</a></li> <li class="field-research-category field--inline"><a href="/taxonomy/research-category/knowledge" hreflang="en">Knowledge</a></li> <li class="field-research-category field--inline"><a href="/taxonomy/research-category/civic-engagement" hreflang="en">Civic engagement</a></li> <li class="field-research-category field--inline"><a href="/taxonomy/research-category/recycling" hreflang="en">Recycling</a></li> <li class="field-research-category field--inline"><a href="/taxonomy/research-category/waste-reduction" hreflang="en">Waste reduction</a></li> </ul> </div> Tue, 23 Jan 2024 05:00:00 +0000 Bill Finnegan 11274 at https://eepro.naaee.org Measuring environmental behaviors and attitudes in higher education students from Portugal https://eepro.naaee.org/research/eeresearch/measuring-environmental-behaviors-and-attitudes-higher-education-students Measuring environmental behaviors and attitudes in higher education students from Portugal <div class="field-research-citation"><article class="bibcite-reference"> <div class="bibcite-citation"> <div class="csl-bib-body"><div><div class="csl-entry"><span class="citeproc-author">Sousa, S., Correia, E., Leite, J., &amp; Viseu, C</span>. (2021). <span class="citeproc-title-and-descriptions"><span class="citeproc-title"><span>Environmental knowledge, attitudes and behavior of higher education students: a case study in Portugal</span></span></span>. <span class="citeproc-container"><span class="citeproc-container-title"><span>International Research In Geographical And Environmental Education</span></span>, <span class="citeproc-locators"><span class="citeproc-volume"><span>30</span></span><span class="citeproc-issue">(4)</span>, <span class="citeproc-page">348-365, </span></span></span>. <span class="citeproc-access">https://doi.org/10.1080/10382046.2020.1838122</span></div></div></div> </div> </article> </div> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><a title="View user profile." href="/community/people/bill-finnegan" class="username">Bill Finnegan</a></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Tue, 01/23/2024 - 00:00</span> <div class="body"><p>Environmental issues have become an increasing concern over the last few decades. Specifically, in Portugal, education on environmental problems has lacked compared with other European countries. In 2016, Portugal resolved to reduce its overall carbon emissions. As a part of that resolution, the country pledged to invest more in environmental education and awareness of the pressing issues of climate change in order to effectively promote environmentally-friendly behaviors in students. Higher education institutions (HEIs) are key in providing education to the next generation of leaders. Because of this, it's important to assess the state of undergraduate students' environmental knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors, as to determine institutional strategies to promote environmental protection. This study examined the environmental knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of undergraduate students and whether their demographics or socioeconomic status played a role in their behaviors.</p> <p>This study took place between March and May 2020 at the Coimbra Business School - ISCAC, a public HEI in Portugal with 2,857 students. A voluntary questionnaire was administered to undergraduate students. In total, 371 questionnaires were collected for analysis. Respondents were mostly 18-23 years old. The majority of responses were from female students and those in shared housing with other students. The average student household income was between 700 and 1,700 euros per month. The questionnaire measured student's environmental knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and included some demographic questions. Knowledge was measured with seven statements of environmental facts in which students rated their agreeance of each one on a five-point scale of "totally disagree” (1) to "totally agree” (5). A higher score indicated students found the facts accurate and had higher environmental knowledge. Students also rated eight information sources for environmental knowledge on a five-point scale of "not at all important” (1) to "extremely important” (5). Attitudes were measured with five positive environmental attitude statements that students rated on a five-point scale of "totally disagree (1) to "totally agree” (5). Behaviors were measured by eight statements, each listed a different environmental behavior, to which respondents rated on a five-point scale how often they exercise that behavior from "never” (1) to "always” (5).</p> <p>Overall, the results indicated the students felt it was important to protect the environment. Results showed most students had a high amount of environmental knowledge, which was similar to other studies done on secondary school and higher education students across the world. For example, almost half of respondents agreed that temperature is rising in the atmosphere, which likely was learned from seeing news about climate change in the media. Students' main sources of environmental information were from television, social networks, and HEIs. Regarding environmental attitudes, 80% of students agreed that natural resources are limited and should be used more wisely. The majority of respondents also agreed nature can be easily affected by human activity, global warming should be a top priority across the globe, and animals and plants should be protected. These results showed most students had positive environmental attitudes. Lastly, the researchers found the most likely student pro-environmental behaviors related to paper and energy use. However, there were 19 students that said they never recycled and 34 who mentioned they never used a more environmentally friendly means of transportation such as biking. Overall, this portion of the survey findings generally aligned with other studies.</p> <p>Students' socioeconomic and demographic traits were assessed and compared with their environmental behaviors, attitudes, and knowledge. Results showed there was not a significant difference in environmental knowledge and student gender, living arrangements, income, nor area of study. The results between knowledge and gender differed from other studies that often show women score lower than men in tests of environmental knowledge. For environmental attitudes, there was also no significant difference among student age, area of study, living situation, nor income. This also contrasted previous literature, which stated females with lower income status and students in their first year usually score higher on surveys of environmental attitudes. For environmental behavior, again the results showed no significant differences between behaviors and student age, area of study, living situation, nor income. There was a difference between genders, it was shown that women had more environmentally friendly behaviors than men, a common trend found in other research.</p> <p>There were limitations in this study, and the results are not generalizable. One of the most important was the knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of each student was self-reported, which could create biases in the responses. Further, many HEIs explain the theoretical premises for complex environmental issues and do not typically explain specific environmental issues, contexts, and case studies can influence the attitudes and behaviors students hold. </p> <p>Overall, this study showed the students had a strong belief in and understanding of protecting the environment. Further, the students believed they were knowledgeable on how to protect the environment. HEIs serve as one of the best information sources for students, which is critical for teaching students to be future leaders in environmental issues and solutions. However, despite positive behavior results, many students responded that they did not practice pro-environmental behaviors, such as using public transportation. The researchers suggested educators in HEIs promote environmental protection, and instill environmental knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors in students, through meetings, conferences, and other actions. Further, there should be an incorporation of environmental topics into the curriculum of all study areas. The researchers hoped the baseline data captured in this survey could inform future HEI education strategies.</p></div> <div class="field-label--inline--wrapper field-wrapper--field-research-summary"> <p class="field-label--field-research-summary field-label--inline">The Bottom Line</p> <div class="field-research-summary field--inline"><p>The researchers in this study sought to understand Portuguese undergraduate students&#039; environmental knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors as well as assess how their demographics and socioeconomic status affected those dimensions. To measure this, 371 students completed a short questionnaire. The results showed most students felt knowledgeable about the environment and held strong attitudes toward protecting it. In addition, most of the students acted in environmentally friendly ways. The researchers recommended there should be greater encouragement to adopt environmentally friendly behaviors targeted at those who do not do such. There should also be further implementation of environmental topics in the curriculum across majors in higher education institutions.</p> </div> </div> <div class="field-label--inline--wrapper field-wrapper--field-research-partner"> <p class="field-label--field-research-partner field-label--inline">Research Partner</p> <div class="field-research-partner field--inline"><a href="/taxonomy/term/119" hreflang="en">NAAEE</a></div> </div> <div class="field-label--inline--wrapper field-wrapper--field-research-category"> <p class="field-label--field-research-category field-label--inline">Research Category</p> <ul class="field-multiple--field-research-category"> <li class="field-research-category field--inline"><a href="/taxonomy/research-category/young-adulthood-19-24-yrs" hreflang="en">Young adulthood (19-24 yrs)</a></li> <li class="field-research-category field--inline"><a href="/taxonomy/research-category/formal-learning-setting" hreflang="en">Formal learning setting</a></li> <li class="field-research-category field--inline"><a href="/taxonomy/research-category/nonformal-learning-setting" hreflang="en">Nonformal learning setting</a></li> <li class="field-research-category field--inline"><a href="/taxonomy/research-category/informal-learning-setting" hreflang="en">Informal learning setting</a></li> <li class="field-research-category field--inline"><a href="/taxonomy/research-category/awareness" hreflang="en">Awareness</a></li> <li class="field-research-category field--inline"><a href="/taxonomy/research-category/attitude" hreflang="en">Attitude</a></li> <li class="field-research-category field--inline"><a href="/taxonomy/research-category/knowledge" hreflang="en">Knowledge</a></li> <li class="field-research-category field--inline"><a href="/taxonomy/research-category/pro-environmental-behaviors-and-behavior-change" hreflang="en">Pro-environmental behaviors and behavior change</a></li> </ul> </div> Tue, 23 Jan 2024 05:00:00 +0000 Bill Finnegan 11273 at https://eepro.naaee.org Zoos can increase wildlife conservation attitudes in visitors https://eepro.naaee.org/research/eeresearch/zoos-can-increase-wildlife-conservation-attitudes-visitors Zoos can increase wildlife conservation attitudes in visitors <div class="field-research-citation"><article class="bibcite-reference"> <div class="bibcite-citation"> <div class="csl-bib-body"><div><div class="csl-entry"><span class="citeproc-author">Kleespies, M. W., Montes, N. Á., Bambach, A. M., Gricar, E., Wenzel, V., &amp; Dierkes, P. W</span>. (2021). <span class="citeproc-title-and-descriptions"><span class="citeproc-title"><span>Identifying factors influencing attitudes towards species conservation - a transnational study in the context of zoos</span></span></span>. <span class="citeproc-container"><span class="citeproc-container-title"><span>Environmental Education Research</span></span>, <span class="citeproc-locators"><span class="citeproc-volume"><span>27</span></span><span class="citeproc-issue">(10)</span>, <span class="citeproc-page">1421-1439, </span></span></span>. <span class="citeproc-access">https://doi.org/10.1080/13504622.2021.1927993</span></div></div></div> </div> </article> </div> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><a title="View user profile." href="/community/people/bill-finnegan" class="username">Bill Finnegan</a></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Tue, 01/23/2024 - 00:00</span> <div class="body"><p>Zoos have become popular as wildlife conservation centers, and they serve as an important place for environmental education. Zoos attract people of all ages throughout the year to observe and learn about the wide variety of animals that reside there. For this reason, zoos can be a great place to gather information what influences visitors' attitudes toward animal conservation. The researchers in this study aimed to understand the attitudes people had for species conservation as well as which factors (age, gender, number of visits, perceptions of zoos, location, and interest around animal species) had a greater influence on attitudes. </p> <p>The study was conducted at 10 large zoos located in cities across 7 countries in Europe (Bulgaria, Greece, Armenia, France, Lithuania, Great Britain, and Germany) in 2015-2016 and 2020. Zoo staff randomly distributed paper surveys in the city and surrounding areas, as well as in the zoo, to get a wide sample of people who may or may not often visit zoos. The survey included questions on age and gender, as well as the number of times respondents visited a zoo in the last year ("never,” "1-2 times,” or "3 or more times”). Survey questions measured attitudes towards animal conservation, interest in animals, and perceptions of zoos. All survey questions included responses on a five-point scale, from 1 "disagree” to 5 "agree”, except for one statement (in the attitudes section) was measured from 1 "unimportant” to 5 "important”. Attitudes were measured through four questions that captured different dimensions of attitude including, attitude related intention to act, affective measures, and the cognitive component. Interest in animals was measured by three other questions. The questions asked what type of animals the survey respondent liked, their emotional connection to animals, and the value they assigned to animals generally. Lastly, perceptions of zoos were measured through two questions that asked about the necessity of zoos and if animals should be in them. In total, 3,347 surveys were collected. Most respondents were female between the ages of 20 and 29 years, though participants ranged in age from 19 years and younger to 60 years or older. The researchers analyzed the survey data to determine which factors played the largest role in the respondents' overall attitudes toward wildlife conservation. </p> <p>The results from the survey highlighted interesting findings on factors that influence attitudes. First, the researchers found demographic factors such as age and gender were significant, but they only explained a small percentage (1.4%) of the attitudes participants had on species conservation. This contrasts previous studies that have shown significant differences in environmental attitudes based on gender. The results showed that people of younger ages were more concerned about wildlife conservation than older people, though it was a small influence, which has also been proven in previous studies. </p> <p>The next part of the survey analysis studied the effects of the number of visits to the zoo in the last year, perception of zoos, and interest in animals, on attitudes towards species conservation. Both number of zoo visits and perception of zoos were found to be significant and were both positively correlated with supportive attitudes. This might have been due to the strong environmental education zoos often provide. Interest in animals was the most significant factor influencing the attitudes of species conservation, explaining more than 25% of the variance associated with positive attitudes. Notably, while number of zoo visits did not directly strongly affect attitudes, it did have a strong effect on interest in animals, and therefore positively influenced attitudes. The researchers felt this made sense, as one is more likely to visit zoos more often if they have higher interest, and regularly visits reinforce positive attitudes. Frequent visits to the zoo (three or more visits in the last year) correlated with greater interest in animals. </p> <p>The final part of the analysis looked at the countries in which the surveys were given to identify whether their country influenced the respondents' attitudes on wildlife conservation. Survey country was the second highest contributing factor to positive attitudes from the survey respondents. Previous studies have shown countries with more wealth tend to have citizens with greater environmental attitudes, but other studies have also shown the opposite is true. All seven countries in this study either high income or upper middle income and so no wealth differences could be concluded. Overall, the researchers concluded that zoos can serve as a good environmental education tool that not only increases animal interest, but also forms positive attitudes around species conservation. </p> <p>There were a few limitations in this study. The researchers utilized a testing instrument with a small number of questions as to decrease time needed to complete it. This can impact the validity of the instrument as fewer questions may not completely accurately measure the constructs. Another limitation was the time in which the data was collected. Some of the data was collected in 2015-2016, while the rest was collected in 2020. People's attitudes could have changed over this amount of time effecting results. Lastly, the survey was administered by different people, meaning that the delivery of the survey was not consistent. The zoo staff were supplied an interview guide, but differences could have still occurred.</p> <p>The researchers concluded zoos are a crucial environmental education tool that can support wildlife conservation attitudes in children, teens, and adults. Particularly, the connection between interests in animals and positive attitudes towards species conservation was noted by the researchers. They recommended encouraging interest in animals, such as through educators highlighting the importance of conservation. More visits to zoos should also be encouraged, such as through regular visits with students and as individuals. </p></div> <div class="field-label--inline--wrapper field-wrapper--field-research-summary"> <p class="field-label--field-research-summary field-label--inline">The Bottom Line</p> <div class="field-research-summary field--inline"><p>Zoos can influence attitudes towards species conservation. This study aimed to understand what factors (age, gender, zoo visits, perception of zoos, interest in animals, and location of zoo) played the biggest role in shaping these attitudes towards species conservation. A survey was administered at zoos and in the surrounding cities of seven European countries. In total 3,347 surveys were collected and analyzed. The results showed that all the factors were significant (though some much less significant than others) in forming positive attitudes towards species conservation except for gender. Interest in animals was the most significant, and number of visits strongly influenced interest. These results not only showed that zoos are important environmental education tools, but that increased number of visits helps to form these positive attitudes and a lasting interest in wildlife conservation.</p> </div> </div> <div class="field-label--inline--wrapper field-wrapper--field-research-partner"> <p class="field-label--field-research-partner field-label--inline">Research Partner</p> <div class="field-research-partner field--inline"><a href="/taxonomy/term/119" hreflang="en">NAAEE</a></div> </div> <div class="field-label--inline--wrapper field-wrapper--field-research-category"> <p class="field-label--field-research-category field-label--inline">Research Category</p> <ul class="field-multiple--field-research-category"> <li class="field-research-category field--inline"><a href="/taxonomy/research-category/nonformal-learning-setting" hreflang="en">Nonformal learning setting</a></li> <li class="field-research-category field--inline"><a href="/taxonomy/research-category/awareness" hreflang="en">Awareness</a></li> <li class="field-research-category field--inline"><a href="/taxonomy/research-category/attitude" hreflang="en">Attitude</a></li> <li class="field-research-category field--inline"><a href="/taxonomy/research-category/knowledge" hreflang="en">Knowledge</a></li> </ul> </div> Tue, 23 Jan 2024 05:00:00 +0000 Bill Finnegan 11259 at https://eepro.naaee.org Climate change messages framed in an economic lens increase students' environmental awareness and decision-making https://eepro.naaee.org/research/eeresearch/climate-change-messages-framed-economic-lens-increase-students-environmental Climate change messages framed in an economic lens increase students&#039; environmental awareness and decision-making <div class="field-research-citation"><article class="bibcite-reference"> <div class="bibcite-citation"> <div class="csl-bib-body"><div><div class="csl-entry"><span class="citeproc-author">Kang, J., &amp; Hong, J. H</span>. (2021). <span class="citeproc-title-and-descriptions"><span class="citeproc-title"><span>Framing effect of environmental cost information on environmental awareness among high school students</span></span></span>. <span class="citeproc-container"><span class="citeproc-container-title"><span>Environmental Education Research</span></span>, <span class="citeproc-locators"><span class="citeproc-volume"><span>27</span></span><span class="citeproc-issue">(6)</span>, <span class="citeproc-page">936-953, </span></span></span>. <span class="citeproc-access">https://doi.org/10.1080/13504622.2021.1928607</span></div></div></div> </div> </article> </div> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><a title="View user profile." href="/community/people/bill-finnegan" class="username">Bill Finnegan</a></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Tue, 01/23/2024 - 00:00</span> <div class="body"><p>When teaching complex issues, environmental educators must consider using a framework that addresses the environmental, social, and economic aspects of problems to raise awareness and improve pro-environmental decision-making, two key goals of environmental education. In particular, cost information - the perceived trade-offs of environmental issues and solutions - is important for students to consider for sustainability. However, the way environmental education topics have been framed or messaged has not been widely studied. The researchers in this study framed climate change messages on costs in an economic context (the financial gain or loss) and an environmental context (the benefit or detriment to the ecosystem) to determine which framing technique helped increase environmental awareness and support decision-making in students.</p> <p>Framing refers to the way in which a message is delivered to achieve a desired outcome. For example, the person developing the message may choose to emphasize or remove certain components in order to appeal to the audiences' interests, hone in on a specific scope, or highlight a particular subject. In this case, the researchers developed messaging about three issues of climate change (water shortages, sea level rise, and deforestation) under an economic frame using monetary units (the Korean won) and an environmental frame using biophysical units (liters, kilometers, and tons of carbon dioxide) to convey the costs of each issue. Within each framing technique, the researchers tested seven variables to answer their two research questions of which frame helps increase environmental awareness in students and which more positively effects decision-making in students. For environmental awareness, the variables included: 1) perceived certainty, the ability of a student to predict the situation and its consequences; 2) perceived tangibility, the way a student perceives the realness of the issue; 3) perceived danger, the emotional urgency a student feels regarding the issue; and, 4) perceived significance, the level of impact the issue has based on a student's interpretation. For decision-making, the variables included: 1) willingness to participate; 2) decision difficulty; and, 3) decision confidence.</p> <p>The study took place in Gyeonggi Province, Korea during September and October 2017. The researchers worked with teachers in two high schools to provide reading materials and a follow-up questionnaire to first-year high school students, aged 15 to 16 years old. The students were randomly assigned to one of two groups: the environmental frame group (79 students) or the economic frame group (114 students). The questionnaire included messages the students would read, interpret, and answer questions about. The messages were about water shortages, sea level rise, and deforestation either in the economic (monetary) or environmental (biophysical) frame. The follow-up questions were based on each of the seven variables to measure awareness and decision-making as a result of seeing those messages. Each question was answered on a six-point scale. The teachers returned 206 student questionnaires (82 from one high school; 124 from the other) to the researchers; after removing incomplete surveys, 193 were included in the final analysis. The questionnaire responses were statistically analyzed to produce mean scores to reveal framing impact, in which a higher score indicated a more effective messaging tactic.</p> <p>The results regarding environmental awareness showed perceived certainty, perceived danger, and perceived significance had a higher score among the economic group as opposed to the environmental group, whereas perceived tangibility yielded no score difference between the two groups. Regarding decision-making, the analysis showed willingness to participate had a higher score for the environmental group. Decision confidence and decision difficulty showed no significant score differences. The researchers concluded the economic frame was more effective for increasing environmental awareness in three of the four variables. This means economic-based messages were more effective in helping students to predict climate change issues, identify the damage of these issues, and interpret the impact of these issues. The environmental frame was more effective for willingness to participate, while the other two variables for decision-making had the same impact for both environmental and economic framing. Because of this, they concluded environmental-based messages were more effective in encouraging students to decide to act. Overall, the researchers demonstrated economic framing and monetary information can help educators achieve some environmental education goals, and help students connect the impact of social and economic decisions on the natural world.</p> <p>There were limitations to this study. The researchers acknowledged they assumed information affects awareness, which is a fundamental generalization throughout the entire study and ultimately this assumption may not be true. The study focused on Korean high school students, so the results are not generalizable to all student populations, and there was not a control group, meaning the results were hard to compare. Finally, the three environmental messages contained different measures of cost (liters, kilometers, tons of carbon dioxide), whereas the three economic messages contained the same measure of cost (Korean won). This could have caused an added variation in the results as some students may not be as familiar with some biophysical measures.</p> <p>The researchers suggested environmental educators use economic framing to teach complex environmental issues like climate change because it is more effective at creating awareness among students. However, since each individual brings different perspectives and experiences to the classroom, educators should consider using both economic and environmental framing to cater to the needs of students.</p></div> <div class="field-label--inline--wrapper field-wrapper--field-research-summary"> <p class="field-label--field-research-summary field-label--inline">The Bottom Line</p> <div class="field-research-summary field--inline"><p>When teaching complex issues, environmental educators must consider using a framework that addresses the environmental, social, and economic aspects of problems to raise awareness and support decision-making. This study framed messages on the costs of water shortages, sea level rise, and deforestation either in the economic (monetary) or environmental (biophysical) frame to determine which framing technique helped increase environmental awareness and support decision-making in Korean high school students. The questionnaire results showed the economic-based messages were more effective for students to predict climate change issues, identify the damage of climate change, and interpret the impact of climate change. Environmental-based messages were more effective in encouraging students to decide to act. The researchers suggested environmental educators use economic framing to teach complex environmental issues like climate change because it is more effective at creating awareness among students.</p> </div> </div> <div class="field-label--inline--wrapper field-wrapper--field-research-partner"> <p class="field-label--field-research-partner field-label--inline">Research Partner</p> <div class="field-research-partner field--inline"><a href="/taxonomy/term/119" hreflang="en">NAAEE</a></div> </div> <div class="field-label--inline--wrapper field-wrapper--field-research-category"> <p class="field-label--field-research-category field-label--inline">Research Category</p> <ul class="field-multiple--field-research-category"> <li class="field-research-category field--inline"><a href="/taxonomy/research-category/adolescence-13-18-yrs" hreflang="en">Adolescence (13-18 yrs)</a></li> <li class="field-research-category field--inline"><a href="/taxonomy/research-category/awareness" hreflang="en">Awareness</a></li> <li class="field-research-category field--inline"><a href="/taxonomy/research-category/skillscompetencies" hreflang="en">Skills/competencies</a></li> </ul> </div> Tue, 23 Jan 2024 05:00:00 +0000 Bill Finnegan 11258 at https://eepro.naaee.org Local conservation efforts could benefit from student involvement https://eepro.naaee.org/research/eeresearch/local-conservation-efforts-could-benefit-student-involvement Local conservation efforts could benefit from student involvement <div class="field-research-citation"><article class="bibcite-reference"> <div class="bibcite-citation"> <div class="csl-bib-body"><div><div class="csl-entry"><span class="citeproc-author">Kamaludin, M., Azlina, A. A., Ibrahim, W. N. W., Alipiah, R. M., Saputra, J., Abdullah, M. M., et al</span>. (2022). <span class="citeproc-title-and-descriptions"><span class="citeproc-title"><span>Effectiveness of a conservation education program among school students on the importance of mangrove ecosystems in Setiu Wetlands, Malaysia</span></span></span>. <span class="citeproc-container"><span class="citeproc-container-title"><span>Applied Environmental Education &amp; Communication</span></span>, <span class="citeproc-locators"><span class="citeproc-volume"><span>21</span></span><span class="citeproc-issue">(1)</span>, <span class="citeproc-page">23-41, </span></span></span>. <span class="citeproc-access">https://doi.org/10.1080/1533015X.2021.1936298</span></div></div></div> </div> </article> </div> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><a title="View user profile." href="/community/people/bill-finnegan" class="username">Bill Finnegan</a></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Tue, 01/23/2024 - 00:00</span> <div class="body"><p>Mangroves are vulnerable to climate change impacts and face degradation from human activities such as agriculture, aquaculture, and pollution. It is essential to conserve mangroves and mitigate the impacts to them because they provide an array of ecosystem services. For example, mangroves can provide provisioning services (water and food provisioning), regulating services (erosion prevention, climate regulation), supporting services (life cycle maintenance and biodiversity maintenance), and cultural services (education, aesthetics, and heritage), all of which support the environment and local communities. In the second-largest mangrove system globally, the Setiu Wetland in Malaysia, coastal mangroves are critical to the vitality of the local economy. Local communities should be involved in the Setiu Wetland's conservation through partnerships and stewardship, particularly students. Educational programs at local schools can influence the future of mangroves by increasing students' knowledge and awareness of and participation in mangrove conservation. The researchers in this study implemented a conservation education program for students around the Setiu Wetland to test whether the program increased the students' knowledge and awareness of mangrove ecosystem services and whether results differed based on gender.</p> <p>The researchers studied 74 upper secondary school students in SMK Saujana, Setiu in Malaysia. Most of the students (60.8%) were female. The study took place over the course of three conservation education sessions during July and August 2019 and included a pre-and post-workshop questionnaire. The first session was the pre-workshop test, in which students took a questionnaire to test their knowledge on the four categories of mangrove ecosystem services (regulating, provisioning, supporting, and cultural). One month later, the educational session occurred, in which students were divided into four learning groups. The researchers spoke to each of the student groups about wetlands and mangrove ecosystem services, providing background on the benefits and functions of mangroves, threats to mangroves, mangrove protection strategies, and conservation programs. The researchers also implemented hands-on games and activities for the students. The post-workshop questionnaire was administered directly after the educational session and included similar questions to the pre-test to compare the students' results. The third and final session was centered on introducing students to local nonprofits that replant mangroves in the Setiu Wetland. The pre-and post-workshop questionnaires were scored and analyzed to test the impact of the educational session and whether gender played a role in the outcomes. </p> <p>The results from the pre-and post-workshop questionnaires showed there was no significant difference in knowledge and awareness of mangrove conservation in either male or female students, and the educational workshop did not impact the students' scores regardless of gender. Regarding the four elements of mangrove ecosystem services, there was a significant increase of knowledge score on regulating, provisioning, and supporting services. There was no significant change in score for cultural services for all students. For instance, the students demonstrated positive knowledge and awareness responses in the post-workshop questionnaire about mangroves preventing saltwater intrusion (regulating), mangrove output materials like wood (provisioning), and secondary mangrove ecosystems services like nutrient cycling and soil formation (supporting). However, the students did not demonstrate an increased understanding of mangroves' cultural services, such as aesthetics. The emotional value associated with cultural services is hard to measure and may have been more difficult for students to understand. Overall, the researchers concluded the educational workshop did not reveal differences in knowledge of mangrove conservation based on gender. In addition, though the students displayed some increased knowledge on mangrove ecosystems services, the students already had foundational knowledge about mangroves in general because of their previous experience and exposure to the Setiu Wetland.</p> <p>There were limitations to this study, and the results are not generalizable widely. The surveys used were not shared and it is unclear how exactly knowledge and awareness was measured. It was also unclear the purpose of the third session. The researchers selected students in their final year of one secondary school in Malaysia, and those students were local to the Setiu Wetland. Therefore, the students had already formed specific experiences and attitudes toward the mangroves, which may have influenced the study results. Finally, the Setiu Wetland is unique, and its circumstances cannot be exactly replicated around the world.</p> <p>The researchers recommended conservation programs and projects in schools should be expanded to include the wider community to encourage student participation in protecting vulnerable environments.</p></div> <div class="field-label--inline--wrapper field-wrapper--field-research-summary"> <p class="field-label--field-research-summary field-label--inline">The Bottom Line</p> <div class="field-research-summary field--inline"><p>Local communities should be involved in mangrove conservation. Educational programs at local schools have the potential to influence the future of the mangroves through increasing the knowledge and awareness of and participation in mangrove conservation. The researchers in this study implemented a conservation education program and administered pre-and post-workshop questionnaires to upper secondary students around the Setiu Wetlands in Malaysia to test if knowledge of mangrove conservation changed based on gender and whether the program increased the students&#039; knowledge of mangrove ecosystem services. Overall, the researchers concluded that the educational workshop did not reveal differences in knowledge of mangrove conservation based on gender. Though the students displayed some increased knowledge on mangrove ecosystems services, the students already had foundational knowledge about the Setiu Wetland. The researchers recommended conservation programs and projects in schools should be expanded to include the wider community to encourage student participation in protecting vulnerable environments.</p> </div> </div> <div class="field-label--inline--wrapper field-wrapper--field-research-partner"> <p class="field-label--field-research-partner field-label--inline">Research Partner</p> <div class="field-research-partner field--inline"><a href="/taxonomy/term/119" hreflang="en">NAAEE</a></div> </div> <div class="field-label--inline--wrapper field-wrapper--field-research-category"> <p class="field-label--field-research-category field-label--inline">Research Category</p> <ul class="field-multiple--field-research-category"> <li class="field-research-category field--inline"><a href="/taxonomy/research-category/adolescence-13-18-yrs" hreflang="en">Adolescence (13-18 yrs)</a></li> <li class="field-research-category field--inline"><a href="/taxonomy/research-category/young-adulthood-19-24-yrs" hreflang="en">Young adulthood (19-24 yrs)</a></li> <li class="field-research-category field--inline"><a href="/taxonomy/research-category/formal-learning-setting" hreflang="en">Formal learning setting</a></li> <li class="field-research-category field--inline"><a href="/taxonomy/research-category/awareness" hreflang="en">Awareness</a></li> <li class="field-research-category field--inline"><a href="/taxonomy/research-category/knowledge" hreflang="en">Knowledge</a></li> </ul> </div> Tue, 23 Jan 2024 05:00:00 +0000 Bill Finnegan 11257 at https://eepro.naaee.org Ethiopian environmental textbooks present an anthropocentric view of nature, need reform https://eepro.naaee.org/research/eeresearch/ethiopian-environmental-textbooks-present-anthropocentric-view-nature-need Ethiopian environmental textbooks present an anthropocentric view of nature, need reform <div class="field-research-citation"><article class="bibcite-reference"> <div class="bibcite-citation"> <div class="csl-bib-body"><div><div class="csl-entry"><span class="citeproc-author">Gugssa, M. A., Aasetre, J., &amp; Debele, M. L</span>. (2021). <span class="citeproc-title-and-descriptions"><span class="citeproc-title"><span>Views of "nature", the "environment" and the "human-nature" relationships in Ethiopian primary school textbooks</span></span></span>. <span class="citeproc-container"><span class="citeproc-container-title"><span>International Research In Geographical And Environmental Education</span></span>, <span class="citeproc-locators"><span class="citeproc-volume"><span>30</span></span><span class="citeproc-issue">(2)</span>, <span class="citeproc-page">148-163, </span></span></span>. <span class="citeproc-access">https://doi.org/10.1080/14616688.2020.1763564</span></div></div></div> </div> </article> </div> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><a title="View user profile." href="/community/people/bill-finnegan" class="username">Bill Finnegan</a></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Tue, 01/23/2024 - 00:00</span> <div class="body"><p>Textbooks are a foundational component of environmental education in Ethiopia, yet textbooks are not neutral sources of information and can present specific value systems. One such system is anthropocentrism, in which nature is valued and protected insofar as it is useful to humans. However, research suggests that a non-anthropocentric worldview can promote firmer environmental conservation. In this paper, the researchers qualitatively analyzed the content of Ethiopian textbooks to measure the promotion of anthropocentrism.</p> <p>The researchers qualitatively analyzed Ethiopian Environmental Science textbooks for grades 1-4 to identify recurring themes. They coded these into broader categories of "depictions of nature,” "human-nature relationship,” "representations of environmental problems,” and "views about environmental actions.” The researchers then interpreted the themes they identified.</p> <p>Throughout the textbooks, humans and nature were presented as wholly separate entities. Outdoor activities outlined in the textbooks asked students to identify "natural” features, implying the students were not a part of nature themselves. The textbooks also emphasized the instrumental value of nature in meeting human needs. Students were taught about the benefits of natural resources in human health, agriculture, and markets. Combined, these themes present a hierarchical view of humans dominating the natural world, and do not acknowledge reciprocity or interconnectedness between humans and nature. When the textbooks discussed harms to the natural world such as hunting and habitat destruction, the textbooks simply described "humans” as responsible, without identifying specific groups that are directly responsible for these damages. However, the textbooks did emphasize the vulnerability of natural resources to human threats such as overharvesting and pollution. The textbooks encouraged using natural resources responsibly so that environmental harms would not negatively impact human growth in the future. The textbooks made weak suggestions for national policymakers to prevent environmental harms and made little mention of what students can do to help.</p> <p>This study had limitations. For one, the study was based in Ethiopia, an African country with a unique history and population. The results may or may not be generalizable to other educational systems in other countries. In addition, the qualitative nature of the analysis makes its findings dependent on subjective interpretation by the researchers.</p> <p>The researchers found that Ethiopian textbooks presented a wholly anthropocentric view of nature, with humans presented as dominant over nature and entitled to its resources. This view may lead students to accept environmental degradation as a necessary consequence of human life, which is unlikely to inspire positive environmental behavior. The researchers called for a fundamental reform of Ethiopian textbooks so that they encourage a love of nature and concern for environmental issues. They also recommended revising outdoor activities to be more hands-on and immersive, instead of presenting nature as a separate and alien entity, and for the textbooks to propose actions that are understandable and doable for students.</p></div> <div class="field-label--inline--wrapper field-wrapper--field-research-summary"> <p class="field-label--field-research-summary field-label--inline">The Bottom Line</p> <div class="field-research-summary field--inline"><p>In this paper, the researchers analyzed the content of Ethiopian textbooks to measure the promotion of anthropocentrism. The researchers found that Ethiopian textbooks presented a wholly anthropocentric view of nature, with humans presented as dominant over nature and entitled to its resources. This view may lead students to accept environmental degradation as a necessary consequence of human life, which is unlikely to inspire positive environmental behavior. The researchers called for a fundamental reform of Ethiopian Environmental Science textbooks to encourage a love of nature and concern for environmental issues.</p> </div> </div> <div class="field-label--inline--wrapper field-wrapper--field-research-partner"> <p class="field-label--field-research-partner field-label--inline">Research Partner</p> <div class="field-research-partner field--inline"><a href="/taxonomy/term/119" hreflang="en">NAAEE</a></div> </div> <div class="field-label--inline--wrapper field-wrapper--field-research-category"> <p class="field-label--field-research-category field-label--inline">Research Category</p> <ul class="field-multiple--field-research-category"> <li class="field-research-category field--inline"><a href="/taxonomy/research-category/middle-childhood-6-12-yrs" hreflang="en">Middle childhood (6-12 yrs)</a></li> <li class="field-research-category field--inline"><a href="/taxonomy/research-category/formal-learning-setting" hreflang="en">Formal learning setting</a></li> <li class="field-research-category field--inline"><a href="/taxonomy/research-category/awareness" hreflang="en">Awareness</a></li> <li class="field-research-category field--inline"><a href="/taxonomy/research-category/attitude" hreflang="en">Attitude</a></li> <li class="field-research-category field--inline"><a href="/taxonomy/research-category/civic-engagement" hreflang="en">Civic engagement</a></li> <li class="field-research-category field--inline"><a href="/taxonomy/research-category/advocacy-participation-environmental-movement-policy-support" hreflang="en">Advocacy, participation in environmental movement, policy support</a></li> </ul> </div> Tue, 23 Jan 2024 05:00:00 +0000 Bill Finnegan 11254 at https://eepro.naaee.org Cognitive, emotional, and sensory learning can inspire systemic environmental change https://eepro.naaee.org/research/eeresearch/cognitive-emotional-and-sensory-learning-can-inspire-systemic-environmental Cognitive, emotional, and sensory learning can inspire systemic environmental change <div class="field-research-citation"><article class="bibcite-reference"> <div class="bibcite-citation"> <div class="csl-bib-body"><div><div class="csl-entry"><span class="citeproc-author">Goldman, D., Alkaher, I., &amp; Aram, I</span>. (2021). <span class="citeproc-title-and-descriptions"><span class="citeproc-title"><span>"Looking garbage in the eyes": From recycling to reducing consumerism- transformative environmental education at a waste treatment facility</span></span></span>. <span class="citeproc-container"><span class="citeproc-container-title"><span>The Journal Of Environmental Education</span></span>, <span class="citeproc-locators"><span class="citeproc-volume"><span>52</span></span><span class="citeproc-issue">(6)</span>, <span class="citeproc-page">398-416, </span></span></span>. <span class="citeproc-access">https://doi.org/10.1080/00958964.2021.1952397</span></div></div></div> </div> </article> </div> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><a title="View user profile." href="/community/people/bill-finnegan" class="username">Bill Finnegan</a></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Tue, 01/23/2024 - 00:00</span> <div class="body"><p>Environmental and sustainability education (ESE) covers various topics. Of these, waste management has become prevalent given the increased focus on plastic pollution and other material waste. Waste management has typically been viewed in popular culture as a problem in which the consumer should take responsibility for their material consumption. For example, recycling, composting, separating waste materials, and choosing not to litter are key lessons in ESE regarding waste management. However, this end-of-life approach for materials by each individual does not focus on the systemic issue of the cycle of material consumptive behavior which ultimately fuels more unsustainable habits (e.g., plastic consumption, ineffective recycling, depletion of natural resources to make products). Therefore, ESE can provide more effective lessons on waste management by focusing on the entire materials lifecycle and on reducing the overproduction of materials, pollution, and human consumption. The researchers in this study explored the way a waste facility conducted its waste education within the transformative sustainability learning framework. They also gathered insight from teachers on their ability to link waste management to both individual and social responsibilities. </p> <p>Transformative sustainability learning (TSL) is a teaching method that allows learners to develop autonomy in their critical thinking about sustainability and the environment and the role of social, economic, and political contexts. For example, the learner can take a waste management issue at face value but is also equipped to think about the issues from different frames of reference based on their own experiences. Then, that learner can make decisions based on that critical evaluation of the issue because they acknowledge their initial interpretation at face value may be inherently unsustainable. This shift from teaching about a topic to encouraging students to think critically and offer alternative solutions can cultivate more sustainable behaviors. </p> <p>The study was conducted in 2018 at the Hiriya waste treatment facility in Israel, one of the largest in the world. The researchers identified about 140 K-16 teachers from the area that participated in the study. These teachers were divided into four groups of 30-50 teachers each, and each group participated in four, three-hour professional development sessions at the facility over a series of visits. The researchers made observations of these group visits. A group of 10 other teachers visited the facility with their students, and the researchers interviewed them a few weeks after this visit. Of the teachers interviewed, 4 were preschool teachers, 6 were primary school teachers - all with 4-18 years of teaching experience - and 5 had experience in ESE. The researchers also collected 25 different lesson plans (documents) from the facility. The three sources of information (observations, interviews, and documents) were then analyzed by the researchers to uncover the level at which Hiriya deployed TSL and the impact it had on the teachers.</p> <p>The researchers found the lesson plans from Hiriya demonstrated TSL in that the curriculum and activities supported critical thinking by encouraging learners to challenge constructs of environmental issues and solutions. Observations and interviews revealed the teachers felt a range of emotions and responses like surprise and confusion to the visitor experience and perception of waste management responsibility after that. For example, some teachers expressed frustration, anger, or denial during the program that contradicted their preexisting experience or understanding of waste management (e.g., recycling). Further, some teachers demonstrated TSL by starting to expand their perspective of waste management and material consumption beyond the environmental elements and impacts to consider the broader socio-economic and socio-political contexts of sustainability. The researchers believed the programming put the teachers at the edge of their comfort zone, but the experience was not too overwhelming that they could not learn. Instead, this challenge helped the teachers learn and expand their thinking. </p> <p>Despite this deeper learning, not all teachers exhibited a desire to engage in a behavioral change that addressed the systemic issues of consumerism and waste management, such as advocating for policies that place emphasis on the producer. The interviews revealed that most of those teachers changed their consumption habits, waste management, and recycling in the time after their experiences at the facility. This did not translate directly into change among all of those teachers, however. Some teachers only made changes in their own lives and within their circle of influence (i.e., with their families or with their friends). Only a few of the interviewees felt they had a role and influence in material consumption and waste management systems. Overall, the researchers found that Hiriya's education program impacted the teachers during and after the visit, with particular focus on the cognitive, the emotional, and sensory learning experiences (smells, sights, sounds). The teachers experienced different levels of perceptive and behavioral change afterward.</p> <p>There were limitations to this study, and the results were not generalizable. The study took place in Israel, and the waste management practices may not reflect the circumstances in other countries. Furthermore, Hiriya is one of the world's leading waste treatment facilities based on the tons treated daily and does not reflect the average facility's capacity. The facility also hosts a waste education professional development program (the one the teachers went through), which may not be typical for most facilities. Therefore, this experience may not be widely-accessible in other areas. Finally, the study focused on teachers, so the results may not directly translate to school children. </p> <p>The researchers suggested critical learning that implements TSL like the Hiriya waste management program is important for encouraging systemic change for important ESE issues like material consumerism and waste management. Specifically, the combination of the cognitive, emotional, and sensory learning experiences can be effective in sparking behavioral change. The researchers also recommended that, specific to waste management, the curriculum should focus less on the individual actions or downstream solutions to combat the issues and instead focus on the systemic, collective actions or upstream solutions that address the source of the issue (e.g., extended producer responsibility, which is where the manufacturer bears the burden of the items' environmental impacts). Finally, the researchers asserted the Hiriya waste management education program can serve as a model for other resource management ESE topics.</p></div> <div class="field-label--inline--wrapper field-wrapper--field-research-summary"> <p class="field-label--field-research-summary field-label--inline">The Bottom Line</p> <div class="field-research-summary field--inline"><p>Environmental and sustainability education (ESE) can provide practical lessons on waste management by focusing on the entire materials lifecycle and reducing overproduction and consumption through transformative sustainability learning (TSL). The researchers explored the way an Israeli waste facility conducted its waste education within the TSL framework and gathered insight from teachers on their ability to link waste management to both individual and social responsibilities. After collecting the facility&#039;s educational documents, conducting observations and interviews, the researchers found the education program had an impact on the teachers during and after the visit, and the teachers experienced different levels of perceptive and behavioral change afterward. The researchers suggested critical learning that implements TSL with the cognitive, emotional, and sensory learning experiences can be effective in sparking behavioral change in individuals for ESE topics like waste management and material consumption.</p> </div> </div> <div class="field-label--inline--wrapper field-wrapper--field-research-partner"> <p class="field-label--field-research-partner field-label--inline">Research Partner</p> <div class="field-research-partner field--inline"><a href="/taxonomy/term/119" hreflang="en">NAAEE</a></div> </div> <div class="field-label--inline--wrapper field-wrapper--field-research-category"> <p class="field-label--field-research-category field-label--inline">Research Category</p> <ul class="field-multiple--field-research-category"> <li class="field-research-category field--inline"><a href="/taxonomy/research-category/adult-25-64-yrs" hreflang="en">Adult (25-64 yrs)</a></li> <li class="field-research-category field--inline"><a href="/taxonomy/research-category/nonformal-learning-setting" hreflang="en">Nonformal learning setting</a></li> <li class="field-research-category field--inline"><a href="/taxonomy/research-category/awareness" hreflang="en">Awareness</a></li> <li class="field-research-category field--inline"><a href="/taxonomy/research-category/civic-engagement" hreflang="en">Civic engagement</a></li> <li class="field-research-category field--inline"><a href="/taxonomy/research-category/professional-development" hreflang="en">Professional development</a></li> <li class="field-research-category field--inline"><a href="/taxonomy/research-category/recycling" hreflang="en">Recycling</a></li> <li class="field-research-category field--inline"><a href="/taxonomy/research-category/waste-reduction" hreflang="en">Waste reduction</a></li> <li class="field-research-category field--inline"><a href="/taxonomy/research-category/advocacy-participation-environmental-movement-policy-support" hreflang="en">Advocacy, participation in environmental movement, policy support</a></li> </ul> </div> Tue, 23 Jan 2024 05:00:00 +0000 Bill Finnegan 11252 at https://eepro.naaee.org New model gives six strategies for EE educators https://eepro.naaee.org/research/eeresearch/new-model-gives-six-strategies-ee-educators New model gives six strategies for EE educators <div class="field-research-citation"><article class="bibcite-reference"> <div class="bibcite-citation"> <div class="csl-bib-body"><div><div class="csl-entry"><span class="citeproc-author">Bowers, A. W., &amp; Creamer, E. G</span>. (2021). <span class="citeproc-title-and-descriptions"><span class="citeproc-title"><span>A grounded theory systematic review of environmental education for secondary students in the United States</span></span></span>. <span class="citeproc-container"><span class="citeproc-container-title"><span>International Research In Geographical And Environmental Education</span></span>, <span class="citeproc-locators"><span class="citeproc-volume"><span>30</span></span><span class="citeproc-issue">(3)</span>, <span class="citeproc-page">184-201, </span></span></span>. <span class="citeproc-access">https://doi.org/10.1080/10382046.2020.1770446</span></div></div></div> </div> </article> </div> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><a title="View user profile." href="/community/people/bill-finnegan" class="username">Bill Finnegan</a></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Tue, 01/23/2024 - 00:00</span> <div class="body"><p>Environmental education (EE) has been practiced in the United States since the early twentieth century and helps students develop environmental literacy and the tools to address global climate issues. As scientists have predicted worsening climate conditions that will negatively impact human health and ecosystems, EE is well-positioned to positively influence students' knowledge, skills, and attitudes, leading to more pro-environmental behaviors over time to collectively reduce the negative impacts of climate change. Though previous research has produced insights into the strategies of past EE programs and suggestions for pathways forward to produce particular EE outcomes, there is a lack of applicable frameworks linking EE strategies to outcomes. The researchers in this study conducted a literature review to identify the outcomes and strategies of secondary school EE programs in the United States to develop the Implementation of Authentic Environmental Education Programs (IAEEP) model for educators.</p> <p>The researchers conducted the initial literature review in May 2018. They performed a search of a research database to identify peer-reviewed studies written in English published between 2011 and 2018 that fell within two subjects: 1) education and 2) agricultural sciences, natural resources, and life sciences. The search terms included "environmental education” and terms associated with secondary education in the United States, such as "high school,” "secondary students,” and "ninth grade.” After the search and exclusion method, 27 studies satisfied the researchers' requirements for review. A second phase of the review occurred in January 2019. A similar review process was completed but included an expanded date range. This second phase yielded an additional 12 studies to include in the overall study. The researchers analyzed a total of 39 studies to derive categories of best teaching methods and develop the process of effective EE in secondary schools in the United States. This analysis led the researchers to develop the IAEEP model with six strategies to help educators reach EE outcomes.</p> <p>The literature review showed that the most common outcome of EE in secondary education in the United States are pro-environmental behaviors. Engaging teaching methods such group activities, projects with real-world applications, time to reflect, and collaborations with community members increased students' environmental literacy, meaning their awareness, knowledge, skills, and attitudes. These methods lead to pro-environmental behavior outcomes in students and students valuing the EE program more deeply. Authenticity was found to be a key aspect of EE in the literature review, affording a specific link between teaching methods and achieving positive outcomes. For example, when students perceived the program facilitator to be passionate about the subject and open to critical discussion, the students perceived authenticity in the program, which led to more frequent positive outcomes. The literature review informed the six strategies for educators in the IAEEP, which included 1) connecting with others, 2) creating safe spaces, 3) demonstrating relevance, 4) mitigating complexity, 5) supporting the individual, and 6) using technology. </p> <p>There were limitations to this study. The researchers acknowledged that the literature review did not capture all relevant literature. For example, they excluded dissertations and non-peer-reviewed papers. The researchers also limited their research to EE in the American secondary education system, which is not representative of the full scope of EE. </p> <p>Based on the literature review, the researchers suggested that EE facilitators, topics, and assignments must be perceived as authentic by students for an EE program to successfully achieve desired outcomes (i.e., behavior change), particularly for secondary school students. The IAEEP can serve as a roadmap for EE educators with six strategies that help teachers create authentic experiences and engaging programming.</p></div> <div class="field-label--inline--wrapper field-wrapper--field-research-summary"> <p class="field-label--field-research-summary field-label--inline">The Bottom Line</p> <div class="field-research-summary field--inline"><p>Previous research has produced insights into EE programming and suggestions for pathways forward to reach particular EE outcomes. However, there is a lack of applicable frameworks linking EE strategies to outcomes. The researchers conducted a literature review to identify the outcomes and strategies of United States secondary school EE programs. The review showed engaging teaching methods increased students&#039; environmental awareness, skills, knowledge, and attitudes. Authenticity was found to be a key component of EE and led the researchers to develop the Implementation of Authentic Environmental Education Programs (IAEEP) model for educators. The six strategies in the model included 1) connecting with others, 2) creating safe spaces, 3) demonstrating relevance, 4) mitigating complexity, 5) supporting the individual, and 6) using technology. EE educators can use the IAEEP to develop curriculum, and the researchers recommended ensuring curriculum is authentic to best impact students.</p> </div> </div> <div class="field-label--inline--wrapper field-wrapper--field-research-partner"> <p class="field-label--field-research-partner field-label--inline">Research Partner</p> <div class="field-research-partner field--inline"><a href="/taxonomy/term/119" hreflang="en">NAAEE</a></div> </div> <div class="field-label--inline--wrapper field-wrapper--field-research-category"> <p class="field-label--field-research-category field-label--inline">Research Category</p> <ul class="field-multiple--field-research-category"> <li class="field-research-category field--inline"><a href="/taxonomy/research-category/middle-childhood-6-12-yrs" hreflang="en">Middle childhood (6-12 yrs)</a></li> <li class="field-research-category field--inline"><a href="/taxonomy/research-category/adolescence-13-18-yrs" hreflang="en">Adolescence (13-18 yrs)</a></li> <li class="field-research-category field--inline"><a href="/taxonomy/research-category/young-adulthood-19-24-yrs" hreflang="en">Young adulthood (19-24 yrs)</a></li> <li class="field-research-category field--inline"><a href="/taxonomy/research-category/formal-learning-setting" hreflang="en">Formal learning setting</a></li> <li class="field-research-category field--inline"><a href="/taxonomy/research-category/awareness" hreflang="en">Awareness</a></li> <li class="field-research-category field--inline"><a href="/taxonomy/research-category/attitude" hreflang="en">Attitude</a></li> <li class="field-research-category field--inline"><a href="/taxonomy/research-category/knowledge" hreflang="en">Knowledge</a></li> <li class="field-research-category field--inline"><a href="/taxonomy/research-category/skillscompetencies" hreflang="en">Skills/competencies</a></li> <li class="field-research-category field--inline"><a href="/taxonomy/research-category/engagement-learning" hreflang="en">Engagement with learning</a></li> <li class="field-research-category field--inline"><a href="/taxonomy/research-category/professional-development" hreflang="en">Professional development</a></li> <li class="field-research-category field--inline"><a href="/taxonomy/research-category/pro-environmental-behaviors-and-behavior-change" hreflang="en">Pro-environmental behaviors and behavior change</a></li> </ul> </div> Tue, 23 Jan 2024 05:00:00 +0000 Bill Finnegan 11249 at https://eepro.naaee.org Undergraduate program designers can develop impactful experiences by considering program and landscape features that affect student learning https://eepro.naaee.org/research/eeresearch/undergraduate-program-designers-can-develop-impactful-experiences-considering Undergraduate program designers can develop impactful experiences by considering program and landscape features that affect student learning <div class="field-research-citation"><article class="bibcite-reference"> <div class="bibcite-citation"> <div class="csl-bib-body"><div><div class="csl-entry"><span class="citeproc-author">Bieluch, K. H., Sclafani, A., Bolger, D. T., &amp; Cox, M</span>. (2021). <span class="citeproc-title-and-descriptions"><span class="citeproc-title"><span>Emergent learning outcomes from a complex learning landscape</span></span></span>. <span class="citeproc-container"><span class="citeproc-container-title"><span>Environmental Education Research</span></span>, <span class="citeproc-locators"><span class="citeproc-volume"><span>27</span></span><span class="citeproc-issue">(10)</span>, <span class="citeproc-page">1467-1486, </span></span></span>. <span class="citeproc-access">https://doi.org/10.1080/13504622.2021.1947985</span></div></div></div> </div> </article> </div> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><a title="View user profile." href="/community/people/bill-finnegan" class="username">Bill Finnegan</a></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Tue, 01/23/2024 - 00:00</span> <div class="body"><p>Institutions of higher education are positioned to influence students in becoming informed and action-minded citizens for sustainable change. There are studies that inform best pedagogical practice for undergraduates and studies that validate different objectives that college-aged students retain over time. However, there is a lack of inquiry linking curriculum design and learning outcomes. Student learning is influenced by both the learning landscape, or the general curricular and programmatic features that impact overall student experience, and the program design, or the specific curriculum in which a student embarks. The result of these influences, as defined by the researchers, are <em>emergent learning outcomes</em>, which are program specific and have lasting effects on students. Emergent outcomes in environmental education can include cognitive learning, the increase in environmental subject matter knowledge, and affective learning, the increase in environmental awareness, attitudes, values, and behaviors. The researchers conducted interviews to understand 1) the learning outcomes as described by alumni participants of a community-based study abroad program; 2) the program components and pedagogies that facilitated participant learning; and, 3) the impact of the program on the cognitive and affective development of the participants over time.</p> <p>The Department of Environment Studies at Dartmouth College in New Hampshire, United States hosts an Africa Foreign Study Program (AFSP) for undergraduates that immerses students in natural resource conservation and management in South Africa and Namibia. This 3 course and 10-week study abroad experience is focused on community engagement and hands-on learning approaches. Prior to students going abroad, they take a foundation course in which they choose their research topic for the program abroad and conduct literature reviews on the subject. Then, when the students are in South Africa and Namibia, they take two courses that engage them directly with the local communities that face various natural resource conservation conflicts and those that manage natural resources. For example, the students may interview the local community about the effects of invasive species. Further, the students focus on the relationships between society, economics, and environment in the local community as the community tries to manage its resources. Overall, the AFSP uses a social-ecological framework throughout the study abroad term. </p> <p>The researchers interviewed 31 alumni that participated in AFSP during their time as undergraduates between 2013 and 2017. The interviews lasted about an hour each and were held on the phone, virtually, or in person. The researchers used open-ended questions in the interviews that focused on their learning experience during AFSP, and the objectives of both the program and their alma mater. For the latter, the alumni were asked to verbally rate their subject matter increase for specific learning outcomes between 1 and 4, 1 being no knowledge gain and 4 being significant knowledge gain. The researchers recorded and transcribed each interview, and analyzed the data for themes (10) and sub-themes (38) to illuminate the connection between program structure and student outcomes.</p> <p>From the analysis, the researchers determined the learning landscape was made of 12 main elements that fell within 4 main components: 1) structures and pedagogy; 2) student activities; 3) outcomes; and, 4) emergent outcomes. Within structures and pedagogy, they found four elements. For example, the results showed a novel living and learning environment, such as South Africa and Namibia, and exposure to diverse narratives helped the participants apply theory from literature reviews to an actual community situation and confront the complexities community members face when managing natural resources. Further, the alumni shared having space for reflection, such as journaling, and their assignments helped them engage in active learning. Not only were these two elements part of the program structure and pedagogy, but also, they were activities actively endorsed during the program. The interviews also revealed four affective and cognitive learning outcomes in the program: personal growth, interpersonal growth, content knowledge gain, and ethical reasoning development. Finally, they found student reflection and engagement with complexity were the two emergent learning outcomes as part of learning at the landscape level. Reflection is a skill that is not so much taught in the program, yet its growth is facilitated through activities. The program intended for students to understand complex systems; engaging in complexity was a surprising and affirming result. The researchers concluded all learning components are reciprocal. They also found the cognitive and affective development in the participants was affected by both the program design and teaching strategies. </p> <p>There were limitations in this study. The researchers acknowledged they did not account for the psychological conditions that may have affected participation during the program. For example, there may have been constraints for some students that inhibited their ability to fully immerse themselves in the learning landscape or fully engage during certain activities. AFSP is specific to Dartmouth College and the communities in which they serve. Therefore, these results may not be applicable to other experiential college programs. Finally, the researchers did not mention any condition variability between the AFSP trips, such as current conservation issues and community member participants, which may have affected some alumni experiences and perspectives. </p> <p>Based on the interview data, the researchers suggested learning is complex and has many dimensions. Further, they suggested AFSP was successful in creating long-term impacts on the students that participated as undergraduates. The researchers recommended program designers and faculty incorporate similar structure and pedagogy as well as activities, such as reflection and working <em>with</em> the community instead of <em>on</em> or <em>for</em> the community, to obtain similar learning outcomes in students. A program that considers both its own features and the landscape in which the student learns will support cognitive and affective learning, encouraging a more sustainable future through the values and behaviors of its participants.</p></div> <div class="field-label--inline--wrapper field-wrapper--field-research-summary"> <p class="field-label--field-research-summary field-label--inline">The Bottom Line</p> <div class="field-research-summary field--inline"><p>Environmental education can impact cognitive learning (increase in environmental knowledge) and affective learning (increase in environmental awareness, attitudes, values, and behaviors). In this study, 26 interviews were conducted with alumni from a 10-week long experiential college environmental conservation program in Africa. The researchers aimed to understand the 1) learning outcomes as described by the alumni participants; 2) program components and pedagogies that facilitated participant learning; and, 3) impact of the program on the cognitive and affective development of the participants over time. The results showed student reflection and engagement with complexity were the two most impactful learning outcomes. The researchers concluded all learning components are reciprocal. The cognitive and affective development in the participants was affected by both the program design and teaching strategies. The researchers recommended a program designed for both its own features and the landscape in which students learn will support cognitive and affective learning.</p> </div> </div> <div class="field-label--inline--wrapper field-wrapper--field-research-partner"> <p class="field-label--field-research-partner field-label--inline">Research Partner</p> <div class="field-research-partner field--inline"><a href="/taxonomy/term/119" hreflang="en">NAAEE</a></div> </div> <div class="field-label--inline--wrapper field-wrapper--field-research-category"> <p class="field-label--field-research-category field-label--inline">Research Category</p> <ul class="field-multiple--field-research-category"> <li class="field-research-category field--inline"><a href="/taxonomy/research-category/adolescence-13-18-yrs" hreflang="en">Adolescence (13-18 yrs)</a></li> <li class="field-research-category field--inline"><a href="/taxonomy/research-category/young-adulthood-19-24-yrs" hreflang="en">Young adulthood (19-24 yrs)</a></li> <li class="field-research-category field--inline"><a href="/taxonomy/research-category/formal-learning-setting" hreflang="en">Formal learning setting</a></li> <li class="field-research-category field--inline"><a href="/taxonomy/research-category/awareness" hreflang="en">Awareness</a></li> <li class="field-research-category field--inline"><a href="/taxonomy/research-category/attitude" hreflang="en">Attitude</a></li> <li class="field-research-category field--inline"><a href="/taxonomy/research-category/knowledge" hreflang="en">Knowledge</a></li> <li class="field-research-category field--inline"><a href="/taxonomy/research-category/skillscompetencies" hreflang="en">Skills/competencies</a></li> <li class="field-research-category field--inline"><a href="/taxonomy/research-category/pro-environmental-behaviors-and-behavior-change" hreflang="en">Pro-environmental behaviors and behavior change</a></li> <li class="field-research-category field--inline"><a href="/taxonomy/research-category/cognitive-functiondevelopment" hreflang="en">Cognitive function/development</a></li> <li class="field-research-category field--inline"><a href="/taxonomy/research-category/environmental-identitydevelopment" hreflang="en">Environmental identity/development</a></li> </ul> </div> Tue, 23 Jan 2024 05:00:00 +0000 Bill Finnegan 11248 at https://eepro.naaee.org A study of storytelling practices in hunting and fishing that can strengthen human-nature relationships https://eepro.naaee.org/research/eeresearch/study-storytelling-practices-hunting-and-fishing-can-strengthen-human-nature A study of storytelling practices in hunting and fishing that can strengthen human-nature relationships <div class="field-research-citation"><article class="bibcite-reference"> <div class="bibcite-citation"> <div class="csl-bib-body"><div><div class="csl-entry"><span class="citeproc-author">Russell, J</span>. (2020). <span class="citeproc-title-and-descriptions"><span class="citeproc-title"><span>Telling better stories: Toward critical, place-based, and multispecies narrative pedagogies in hunting and fishing cultures</span></span></span>. <span class="citeproc-container"><span class="citeproc-container-title"><span>The Journal Of Environmental Education</span></span>, <span class="citeproc-locators"><span class="citeproc-volume"><span>51</span></span>, <span class="citeproc-page">232 - 245</span></span></span>.</div></div></div> </div> </article> </div> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><a title="View user profile." href="/community/people/bill-finnegan" class="username">Bill Finnegan</a></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden">Wed, 05/04/2022 - 00:00</span> <div class="body"><p>Storytelling can alter one's place-based connection and feelings towards those experiences. Narratives and stories are deeply embedded into the practices of hunting and fishing. In some cases, the author noted, hunters and anglers spend more time talking about the hunting and fishing experiences than actually hunting or fishing. This article is a perspective piece in which the author explored how narratives can shape people's views of hunting and fishing. Drawing on a range of perspectives including psychology, anthropology, morals and ethics; his own personal experiences; and his perspectives as a qualitative researcher; the author argued that critically examining the ways in which hunters and anglers remember and talk about their experiences may reveal pathways to strengthening human-nature relationships. </p> <p>Part of the methods of this perspective piece included an assessment of 15 interview transcripts, hunting curriculum materials, and YouTube videos of young people hunting and fishing. For instance, the author reviewed a YouTube video and described how the video highlighted certain aspects of a hunter's bear hunting experience, such as deep knowledge of the landscape to find the bears, or excitement and drama associated with hunting the bears. In the author's analysis, he posited that such an experience is atypical of hunting and fishing, and in this case, the narrative misrepresented the experience. In another example, the author described a passage from Jane Goodall's experience fox hunting, in which she was similarly swept up by the excitement of the hunt, but ultimately empathized with the fox as being exhausted right before the dogs finished him off. In juxtaposing these two examples, the author pointed out that the narratives reflect differing orientations toward wildlife, as well as can teach new audiences very different perspectives on hunting and fishing. From this work, the author argued that stories can be at once reflective and instructive in the context of hunting and fishing. That is, they can reveal aspects of personal or shared orientations toward wildlife, as well as teach new participants what it means to be a hunter or an angler.</p> <p>The author also argued that the critical examination of hunting and fishing stories may have important implications when thinking about how we build children's relationship with the non-human world. In another aspect of his research, the author examined how children talked about stories they had heard as well as how they told their own stories. He asked the children in the interviews to think about the animal's point of view. The participants were primarily suburban or rural, white, American children and adolescents who hunt and fish. The children's narratives about hunting focused mostly on specific people, places, and processes (e.g., I always go fishing with my grandfather when we visit him on the lake), but rarely considered the perspectives of the non-human participants in the stories. Most participants did not address the morals or emotions in relation to the act of killing and very few stories involved understanding of individual animals' stories. Ultimately, the author suggests children should be offered plentiful opportunities to practice storytelling in supportive, yet critical, environments to foster this skill and build relationships with the non-human world.</p> <p>The study was limited in that it was observational and relied on accounts from the author and children engaging in the activities. As such, bias emerged, but was also being studied. The interviews were conducted with only 15 individuals, and there was no specificity of the number of other materials collected. </p> <p>After considering the different ways narratives are used, and the importance of narratives for children's development, the author considered how best to encourage connection to animals through storytelling. The author encouraged stories to be ecologically and ethically appropriate to that time and place, give a voice to the storyteller, and make people care. This would help people relate more to the animals being killed and places the stories involved. It would also make it easier to approach and understand morally and politically challenging topics. The author also had recommendations for hunter education. The author noted that hunter education should encourage hunters think more about the animal to create a connection to it as an individual and create more of a place-based and ecological connection. The history of the land should be elaborated on in education materials, and Indigenous culture and land should be addressed as an important part of the history of a culture. These cultures engage in hunting and fishing practices with significant place-based connection while also viewing animals as individuals and should therefore be involved in a framework for bettering stories through acknowledgement.</p></div> <div class="field-label--inline--wrapper field-wrapper--field-research-summary"> <p class="field-label--field-research-summary field-label--inline">The Bottom Line</p> <div class="field-research-summary field--inline"><p>&lt;p&gt;Storytelling is a well-known educational tool in environmental education used to engage children or even check for comprehension after a lesson. This study emphasized the importance of narratives in learning and offered suggestions for how to craft such narratives, and how they can strengthen human-nature relationships, with a focus on hunter and fisher storytelling. Narratives can help children develop their moral perspectives and show how they connect with animals, and the opportunity to practice storytelling in a supportive environment should be offered frequently. Narratives should ethically and ecologically appropriate, make us care, and give voices to whose story is being told- particularly animals in this case.&lt;/p&gt;</p> </div> </div> <div class="field-label--inline--wrapper field-wrapper--field-research-partner"> <p class="field-label--field-research-partner field-label--inline">Research Partner</p> <div class="field-research-partner field--inline"><a href="/taxonomy/term/119" hreflang="en">NAAEE</a></div> </div> <div class="field-label--inline--wrapper field-wrapper--field-research-category"> <p class="field-label--field-research-category field-label--inline">Research Category</p> <ul class="field-multiple--field-research-category"> <li class="field-research-category field--inline"><a href="/taxonomy/research-category/middle-childhood-6-12-yrs" hreflang="en">Middle childhood (6-12 yrs)</a></li> <li class="field-research-category field--inline"><a href="/taxonomy/research-category/adolescence-13-18-yrs" hreflang="en">Adolescence (13-18 yrs)</a></li> <li class="field-research-category field--inline"><a href="/taxonomy/research-category/informal-learning-setting" hreflang="en">Informal learning setting</a></li> <li class="field-research-category field--inline"><a href="/taxonomy/research-category/awareness" hreflang="en">Awareness</a></li> <li class="field-research-category field--inline"><a href="/taxonomy/research-category/attitude" hreflang="en">Attitude</a></li> <li class="field-research-category field--inline"><a href="/taxonomy/research-category/connectedness-nature" hreflang="en">Connectedness to nature</a></li> <li class="field-research-category field--inline"><a href="/taxonomy/research-category/community-social-capital" hreflang="en">Community social capital</a></li> <li class="field-research-category field--inline"><a href="/taxonomy/research-category/environmental-identitydevelopment" hreflang="en">Environmental identity/development</a></li> </ul> </div> Wed, 04 May 2022 04:00:00 +0000 Bill Finnegan 6439 at https://eepro.naaee.org